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 معالم الحضارة الإسلامية في اليمن 626- 858هـ

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مُساهمةموضوع: معالم الحضارة الإسلامية في اليمن 626- 858هـ    الثلاثاء 19 يوليو 2011, 4:39 pm

معالم الحضارة الإسلامية في اليمن 626- 858هـ



الباحث:
د / أحمد صالح رابضة
الدرجة العلمية:
دكتوراه
الجامعة:
جامعة عدن
بلد الدراسة:
اليمن
لغة الدراسة:
العربية
تاريخ الإقرار:
2008

الخلاصة
في الختام لا أزعم لنفسي أنني تتبعت المعالم الفكرية لحضارتنا الإسلامية في اليمن تتبعاً كاملاًَ ، فهذا مني جهد المقل ، بيد أنني أزعم أن الدراسة بمجملها ، أسفرت عن جملة من الاستنتاجات المهمة التي لو أمعنا الفكر فيها ، لوجدنا فيها ، دون غلو وتزيد ، ضألتنا في معالجة الكثير من مشكلات وهموم حياتنا المعاصرة .
وأياً ما كان الحال فإننا نلخص هذه الاستنتاجات في النقاط الآتية :
(1) إن السياسة الرسولية قد وقفت على عدة أسس تهدف إلى النهوض باليمن بعد التفكك والتشرذم الذي الّم بها على إثر ظهور أمارات الطوائف ، إذا أمكن التعبير ، ومن هذه الأسس نيل التقليد الرسمي من الدولة العباسية في سيادتها على اليمن ، وتثبيت نسب الأسرة الرسولية إلى اليمانيين حيث اجمع العدد الكبير من جمهور المؤرخين على صحة هذا النسب .
(2) وقد أظهر شعار الدولة الرسولية ،حسب تصورنا ،هذا الاتجاه والمنحى منذ تأسيس الدولة عام 626هـ - 1228م على الأرجح الأعم .
(3) وفي هذا الإطار، وقفت الدولة ضد القوى المناوئة لها من الأئمة والقبائل التي دأبت ، على مدى التاريخ ، على المعارضة مثل المعازبة والقرشيين وغيرهما .
(4) تشجيع العلم والعلماء وإجزال العطاء وإسباغ النعم عليهم ، ومن الصور الرائعة ما المحنا إليه فيما تقدم، من أن مصنفات العلماء كانت تزف إلى ديوان الدولة ، ويمنح العلماء المصنفين آلأف الدراهم نظير جهودهم العلمية المتميزة .
(5) استقلالية القضاء ونزاهته، وقد لمسنا ذلك في ورع القضاة ،وعلى الأخص ، القضاء الأعلى ، ومحاسبة القضاة بحيث يحاسب القاضي حتى على إرتداء الثياب الحريرية ، ناهيك عن تطبيق النظم والقوانين التي أخذت تطبق حتى على الحكام أنفسهم ، فيذعنون لها إذعانا كاملا .
(6) إذعان الحكام لقرارات الشرع والقضاء ، وهذا لمسناه في الحكم الشرعي ضد المجاهد الرسولي والذي لم تفصح المصادر عن طبيعته ومسبباته .
(7) منح كبار القضاة مثل الفيروز آبادي صلاحيات واسعة والبت في أي قضية تعرض عليه عام 817 هـ / 1414م .
(8) نقاء وصفاء وشفافية بعض حكام الدولة الرسولية ومنهم المؤسس عمر بن علي بن رسول الذي أعلن للقضاء أنه وقعت عليه كفارة جماع في رمضان ، فجمع القضاة والفقهاء فقرروا أن يصوم شهرين متتاليين فأذعن لقرارهم والتزم به .
(9) تحري وتقصي القضايا التي تعرض على القضاء والبت فيها في حينها وفق أحكام الشرع.
(10) تعيين القضاة الأكفاء في المناصب الإدارية الحيوية، مثل نظارة ميناء عدن، الذي تولاها القاضي بامعيبد .
(11) مراقبة ومحاسبة المسؤولين ومصادرتهم إن أساؤو، ومكافئتهم إن أحسنوا ،ومعظم المصادرات التي وقفنا عليها تكون نتائجها وخيمة،حيث تصادر الأموال والمباني ، ويتعرض صاحبها في الغالب الأعم للموت في المصادرة .
والمصادرة هنا تنطبق على الإداريين، وحتى العلماء والمدرسين ، فالمدرس يحاسب بالعزل والفصل ، إذا خرج عن جادة الحق .
(12) يغلب على مدرسي المدارس الخاصة و العامة التحلي بالعلم والورع فيعيّنون مباشرة من قبل الحاكم الملك ، أو القائمين على المدارس ، من علية القوم أو فئات المجتمع المختلفة ويختار الملك المدرسبن ذووي المؤهلات العلمية العالية، ممن لهم نتاجات ومصنفات في علوم شتى فإن العلامة محمد التيمي الفارسي ، وهو على الأرجح ، من مدرسي المدرسة المنصورية في عدن قد ألَف في البيطرة والموسيقى وغيرهما ، كما تفرد الملوك انفسهم بتخصصات علمية متميزة ، إذا جاز القول ، فمنهم من آلَف في البيطرة والفلاحة والفلك ومنهم من أتقن الجبر والمقابلة والحساب ، ومنهم من انصرف إلى التأليف في علم التاريخ فأحسنه إلى غير ذلك .
وتبين لنا أن الشكوك التي حامت حول مصنفاتهم هي ، على غالب الظن ، لا تقف على أسس منهجيه ، فهي من قبيل قول القائل : وبلغني ، ونبأ إلى مسامعي ، وقيل إن ، وهذا لا يؤكد صحتها ، وابرز المتشككين تقي الدين الفاسي صاحب العقد الثمين الذي لم يوثق مصدره .
ومتى كان القادة علماء ، كان قرن النهوض الحاسم واجبأ حتميأ في الدولة أيا كانت .
وقد ساهمت مدخلات الموانىء وعلى الأخص ميناء عدن في رفد النهضة وقد كانت تفد من عدن وحدها إلى تعز لكوك من الأموال والبضائع المختلفة .
(13) تأثر النهضة الرسولية بمعطيات النهضة في مصر وبلاد الشام في شتى الفنون والعلوم ، وقد استجلب الرسوليون الخبرات التي ساهمت إلى حد كبير في هذا الصدد، كما برز التأثر في جوانب عدة الممنا بها في مواضعها من الرسالة .
(14) بروز حرية الاعتقاد في الأديان ، فالغالب على الظن ، أن دور العبادة مثل الكنائس والمعابد المسيحية والهندية والفارسية كانت موجودة في عدن منذ زمن سحيق ، كما شجع آل رسول إنتشار المذاهب الإسلامية الأربعة المعروفة التي أولوها حظا كبيرا من عنايتهم ، وخصصوا لها مدارس بعينها ، تدرّس المذاهب الأربعة بمجملها أو كل مذهب على حده ، وكان للمدارس الحنفية القسط الأكبر من هذه العناية .
(15) تمخضت الحركة العلمية والثقافية عن جهود و نتاجات علمية مهمة أسهمت في دعم النهضة الرسولية .
(16) أسهمت الحركة الأدبية في رسم صور شتى للحياة الاجتماعية والاقتصادية والسياسية في الدولة الرسولية ، على الرغم ضآلة حظ الشعر من الجودة والإتقان ، حيث غلبت عليه الأساليب اللفظية الممجوجة ، وافتقد إلى التجارب الشعورية السليمة وهذه هي حال الأدب فيما أطلق عليه عصر الانحطاط في العالم الإسلامي .
(17) وأولى الرسوليون جل عنايتهم ورعايتهم للمؤسسات التعليمية ، فأنشأوا العديد منها في شتى مناطق اليمن ، وقد ساهمت هذه المؤسسات وهيئاتها التعليمية من المدرسين العلماء والفقهاء والقضاة في النهضة ورفد إدارات الدولة بأكفاء العناصر في شتى المجالات ، ولم يقتصر ذلك على الحكام ،بل ساهمت في البناء والتشييد، كل فئات المجتمع ، ونشأت إلى جانب المدارس دور الضيافة ومساكن المدرسين و الدرسة ، ولوحظ أن المدرسين العلماء في هذه المدارس ،من ذووي المصنفات والنتاجات العلمية ،كما برز في هذه المدارس نظام الإعادة " المعيد والمدرس " ولاشك أن المدارس القديمة قد عملت به قبل أن تعرفه الجامعات المتخصصة ، واحتلت العلوم الشرعية والنقلية المكانة الأولى في هذه المدارس ثم تلتها العلوم العقلية .


Abstract.
There is no doubt that history is not only recitation or enumeration and explanation of events and , but also discovery of lesson and raising of ability, particularly in this time where everything go confused and we are no more able to differentiate between good and bad. It have been impressed by an expression said by the leader of India mahatma Ghandi in the context of his criticism of the English policy in his country . He said: civilization is not such a heap of factories and railways. It is a deal of morals and ideal values which we have missed. He was criticizing the English repressive practices against his people who were moaning under oppression of the colonialists, while the leaders and occupation officers repeated that India needed factories and railways so that the people of India could stand on their feet and awake from their slumber and rise from their fall. This led mahatma Ghandi to say: morals are the main pillars of building civilizations.
By this dissertation we wanted to highlight a host of ideas purporting that: civilization and urbanization are not represented in the huge quantity of materials that man makes . It is ability to make man himself and purify his conscience and soul from all filths. The hoped-for proper life is most in need to pure conscience so that their affairs are rightly managed. Our contemporary life contains many evidences on what we say. We feel them clearly in judiciary, administration, economy, and politics and in all aspects of life. When souls and consciences become corrupt corruption will spread to various aspects of life. If souls and consciences are straightforward, life goes on streamlined and free from pollutants and disturbances. Although this idea involves idealism in this polluted time, we emphasize on the basis of our thinking that life is not going to be right unless we pursue the real elements of civilization which is based on high values, ideals and morals, and made the proper man. We do not go too far when we say that: Arrawoolis had followed this way –as we explained in the dissertation - and it could be certainly said that their efforts gave fruits in aspects and failed or about to fail in others.
Undoubtedly we dealt concisely with multi-sided subject of history which we specialized at the beginning to deal with the Islamic civilization in Yemen. This was not done incidentally, and our excuse is that we found messages and researches which dealt with study these civilization landmarks which saved us time of searching into this subject.
Be it as it may, we named the dissertation “Landmarks of Islamic Civilization in Yhemen “626-858H 1282-1454”. After having gone through the wide headline it became clear to us that we would not be
acquainted with all elements of civilization in this period because they many and diverse. We preferred to contain ourselves to the intellectual landmarks of this civilization and concentrated on the most important of these landmarks using summary in explaining these examples.
We also concentrated on the basic objectives pursued from the dissertation which we will briefly review in the conclusion.
We divided the dissertation into four chapters . In the first chapter we dealt with ((situation of Yemen in the time of Message)), dealing with the situation in Yemen at the beginning of the sixth century Higree and the division it went through , and appearance of so-called Attawaif emirates such as Al Zurei, Al Hatem, and Al Mehdi in Zabeed, and Imam Ahmed ben Suleiman in Saadah and Algof, and Ghanem ben Yehya ben Hamzah in Aalsuleimani Mehlaf. In 569H11763 the Ayyoobists were able to exterminate these emirates and we alluded in this context that in 626H/1228. Ali Ben Omar Ben Rasool assumed power and we briefly indicated to the relationship of Al Rasool , and it made it clear to us that historians agreed that it belonged to the descendants of Al Azed Ben Malek Ben Zaid ben Kahlan Ben Saba. We did not ignore opinions of historians who denied this relationship to Ben Ghassan , and we talked about the official tradition in the Abbasiah State under which Ali Ben Omar Ben Rasool was delegated to Yemen in 632H/1234. and we indicated to the emblem of the Rasooliah state which reveals that the objective of the Rasoolis was stability and development of Yemen .
We alluded to the organization of the Rasooli army and dealt with study the opposition forces including the Hamzyoon imams and tribal forces such as Almaazebah, Alqurashiyeen, Almashayekh Beni Ziad and other various forces whom Al Aakwa’ called destroyers, robbers, oubash and calls them Al Awareen.
Al Rasool used various methods against these opponent forces .They included “divide and rule “ policy which they followed in 755H/1354 to spark off dissension among tribes h such as Al Ashaer, and Alqaurashiyeen and assassinations such as assassination of Abubaker Ben Maoodhah Assiri who was murdered on his bed, and crushing down tribal rebellion and burning of villages. This happened to Al maazibah in 782H/1380. In 845H/1441 Al Rasool destroyed Almaazebah leaderships in a feast in which they were slain.
Events did not end there; opposition and other opponent forces increased and it is ascribed to lack of confidence by Al Rasool in the Yemenis. Appointments in high positions were given to non-Yemenis. We indicated in this chapter that the Rasooli policy had contributed to awakening; they gave particular attention to learning, and scholars, judges and jurists and showed indomitable desire in change and modernization. For example, Almudhaffar used to inquire about the laws and asked about reasons for increase or decrease in selling and purchase. They also supported woman’s role in awakening. However, we could find in this context only efforts by princesses of the Rasooli families and decision making maids who contributed to building schools and mosques, and caring for the poor and the orphans, and equipment of soldiers and protection of houses. We also talked about contributions by ports which spent from their revenues and tolls on development programs. Most important was Aden Seaport which got utmost attention from the Rasoolis and received more care in the times of Almugahed, Al afdhal , and Al ashraf. In the times of the latter ones, Aden became an important source of huge profits.
We indicated to the effects of the ports, particularly Aden which was the gate through which foreign culture and sciences and nations entered and its people became a mixture from people of Yemen, Egypt, Iraq, Persia and Africa and mixtures of Persians , Jews , Somalis and Africans.
Effects were further clearer in the development of temples of Christians, Jews, Buddhists and appearance of spirit of tolerance among religions as well as other effects.
Chapter two briefly reviewed the intellectual landmarks in the Muslim countries and their effect on Yemen. We alluded to some effects on Arab and world civilizations and reciprocal effects among nations.
We reviewed effects of the Annooriah and Assalahiah states in Egypt, and Sham, and the civilization landmarks which were established. They relatively resembled the civilization elements in Yemen particularly schools, leagues and others.
We mentioned various specimens of schools , leagues and ….. in Egypt and Sham, and alluded to mosques and book safes. These landmarks were built by all gro8ups of people including rulers, princes , princesses, scholars and traders as it was the case in Yemen.
In Allepo schools emerged in accordance with the four creeds. There were Shafiah, hanafiah, Malekiah creeds and others which were named after their founders. They teaching subjects, systems and curricula were however considerably identical. They contained teachers and assistant teachers , muaddhins and those who were charged with running schools, niches and domes as it was the case with Yemenis schools. But there was no comparison with leagues and ……. because in Sham leagues and ….. were called splendid palaces.
As for spending matters, kings, princes, traders, and those in charge of schools spent on them from endowments allotted for them. We can exclude primary schools which are spent on students' guardians. While those in charge of leagues were concerned with mystics resident in them and set up leagues named after distinguished mystics, the Rasoolis gave similar attention to leagues and their mystics.. The Nooriah and Assalahiah state looked after boo safes and public libraries which were spread in school, mosques, leagues and ……… Kings, scholars and teachers used to lodge many books in these schools. Undoubtedely the Rasoolis followed suit, and, like Al Afdhal, Almugahed and Almuayed and others, lodged many books in their own schools. The Rasoolis were influenced by Egyptians and Shamis in acquiring, keeping and copying books, and these were influenced by the Abbasides in awarding authors gold to the weight of their books.
Most Important Sources and References authorized in the dissertation :
Finally it is useful to summarize the sources and references on which we depended in writing the chapters of the dissertation. We will just review them without analysis and detail. Most of them writings by historians of the Rasooli state who belonged to the family and its official historians. Among them: Al Afdhal Al Abbas date(778H.- 1376), Al Ataya Assuniah, Ismael Ben Al Al Abbas book, date: ( 803H-1400). Fakihastuzzaman and Alkhazraji books date: (812H-1409), Al Aqaduilfakher Alhasan, Alkifayah and Al Aalam, Taraz Alamuzzaman, Al uqood Alluluiah, in addition to books written by Yemeni historians such as Ibn Addiba, date: (944H-1537). Fi Bughyat Almustafid, Alfadhl Almazid, Qurratul uyoon, and Bamakhramah, date (947H-1540), Fi Qiladatunnahr, History of Aden, Yehya Ben Alhusain, date: (1105H-1693), Fi Aqeeluteddman. Most of these contained a lot of important information and dealt with various aspects, among them are political, intellectual, cultural, scientific and architectural aspects. We also benefited from book of Ibn Hatem date: (964H – 1294), Assemt Alghali Atthaman which covered the time prior to Al Rasool and then early stages of their time and the developments in them, and Algundi date(732-1331) in conduct and the biographies it contained about jurists and scholars and others . It is commonly believed that what was dealt with by the Rarsooli state historians undoubtedly mostly represented, adopted or relied on the opinions of the state. the scholar rulers in Beni Rasool used to chronicle the events in their state, and probably their opinions would take sides with the political trends they had adopte3d.
When we studied Islamic schools in Yemen we referred to the books of judge Ismael Ben Ali Al Akwa: Hegrel Ilm and Maaeqleh. It contained a great deal of valuable and elaborate information and careful observations of heger, leagues, education and scholars in many parts of Yemen. Alqadhi Al Akwa purported that Alheger alone was found in areas where Zaidi creed had spread, but a league probably developed in other various places mostly in which Alshafee creed had spread. In such a case we did not disregard his two books : Islamic Schools in Yemen , and the Rasooli state in Yemen which contained other important information. Upon covering information on Hadhramaut and the cultural movement , we referred to Salah Albakri in his book : Political History of Hadhramaut, and Saeed Awadh Bawazir in his known books, among them Pages of the History of Hadhramaut, and book of Saleh Alhamed, History of hadhramaut, and book of Alkaff :Alkhabaya Fizawaya which dealt with important information some which dealt with Hadhramaut.
It is to be noted that we referred to these references after we lacked the sources which were few or totally absent information on Hadhramaut during this period.
When we reviewed "Effects of Thoughts in the Islamic countries on Yemen" particularly when we talked about general effects, we relied on Adam Mitzand his book Islamic Civilization in the Fourth Higree century and Toinbey and his book : Deterioration of the Western Civilization and Darsin Group : The Story of Arab Civilization between Yesterday and Today, and Malek Ben Nabi and his book : Conditions of Civilization, land Mahatma Ghandhi and his book: Their Civilization and Our Salvation." Concerning effects of the Arab Civilization on the West, the books of Well Dewarant : the Story of the Civilization " and Zighrid Honke : the Sun of the Arabs Shines over the West, and Philip Hatti : The Arabs A long History , and Ibn Khaldoon date: (808H -1405) Introduction, are among the most important references in this context. Upon covering the history of mosques, schools and leagues in Egypt we benefited also from books of Taghri Berd date: (874H -1470) Annugoom Azzahirah and Ibn Shaddad , Annawader Assultaniah and Almiqrizi date: (845H – 1442) Conduct, and Stanley Nipol Biography of Cairo, and finally, accurate description of in the Mumluk era . They are indispensable to researchers.
I mentioned books of Ibn Shaddad date: (684H – 1285) , and Ibn Gubert : (614H – 1217) on journeys and Ibn Batootah date: (773H-1377) on journey both of which inbvolved valuable observations of landmarks in Alsham and Egyt,l Ibn Teghri Baladi Annugoom Azzahirah, Almiqrizi, Conduct, Ibn Shaddad : Annawader Assultaniah, Annueimi, Addares in history of schools, important information on mosques , schools, leagues and …..in Sham country. We reviewed with Lemya Algaser the ancient accomplishments which are still existing in Aleppo and we noted here that the concerned authorities in the successive states kept caring for them throughout their long life up to today. The same is said about accomplishments in Egypt in the same period.
The books of Alqalqashandi : Sobhul asha, and Almeqdesi date: (655H – 1257) Addhail Al Arraudhatain, and Gazem, Noorulmaaref, Alkhazragi Alaqood and other effects of slavery system, and job systems in the sultanic palaces. As for the civilization accomplishments among Ayyoobists, Mumlooks and Rasoolis , they were mentioned by Alqalqashandi in Sobhelasha and IbnKhaldoon in his history and Hatti in the Arabs long history, and Ibn Abi Aseibaah : (668H – 1269) Eyoon Al Anba, and Alkutbi in Fwat Alwafiat).
Among the sources which benefited the research was the book of Abdulbaqi Ben Abdulmagid date: (743H -1342), Bahgatuzzaman , Almaghrabi Alwazir: Politics. Which contained valuable information on the political systems and politics of kings . We saw the book of Ahmed Ben Abdula Alqalqashandi date : (812H–1409)Accomplishments of Inafah in Landmarks of Califate .We were informed about the Islamic economic heritage and particularly what concerned calculation and control of officials and their accountability. We relied o the book of Ibn Al Ikhwah: Maalem Alqurbah Fi Ahkam Alhosbah, and book of Ibn Bassam Almohtasab: Nihayat Arrutab fi Talab Alhosbah, and book of Ahmed Ben Teimeih : Calculation in Islam. We also relied on Al Alyafei date: (767H – 1365) Meraat Aljinan, Al Ahdal date: (855H -1480) Asharhi date: (893H-1487) Classes of the Elites. We derived from them information particularly when we talked about the mystic movement and mystics in Yemen.
In the indications by the researcher particularly concerning the awakening and its conditions, we relied on information provided by Malek Ben Nabi in his book : Conditions of Awakening, and L Dewarant in hook: Story of Civilization. When we talked about opinions of orientalists about awakening in the Islamic countries , the research benefited from books of Stanley Linpol : Biography of Cairo, and Nikita Eysiliv : The Islamic Orient in the age, and Carl Brokmann : Date of the Islamic peoples and Philip Hatti: Date of the Arabs long and Brief.
We also depended on Alhagri in Yemen Towns and Almaqhafi in History of the Yemeni tribes, and Kahalah in Encyclopedia of Authors on general introduction of Yemen.
These are the most important sources and references on which relied in the dissertation. There are other sources and references to which we did not indicate. We just provided them in the index of sources.




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معالم الحضارة الإسلامية في اليمن 626- 858هـ
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